Dan Bifield Eats The Twenty

January 3, 2013

All Posts, News

Daniel Eugene “Diamond Dan” Bifield, pictured above, agreed to spend the rest of his life in prison today in return for a lighter sentence for his wife Lisa. The Bifield’s agreed to the deal on December 27. Portions of the agreement were not memorialized in writing and the prosecutors and Judge Cameron McGowan Currie kept their words.

One element of that oral agreement was that Judge Currie would “grant Defendant Dan Bifield’s request for his Plea Agreement not to be filed under seal.” The only other defendant mentioned in the plea deal is Lisa Bifield. The written deal contains no statement of facts.

According to multiple sources speaking on condition of anonymity during the last week Dan Bifield will be sentenced to 20 years in prison and Lisa Bifield will be sentenced to three years. The couple will be sentenced in back to back hearings on March 27.

Bifield is 61-years-old. His incarceration since last June has been marked by numerous instances of alleged abuse. He has lost at least 30 pounds since his arrest and when he appeared in court today his beard had grown longer and whiter.

Quid Pro Quo

The South Carolina federal racketeering case, officially titled U.S. versus Bifield et al., is unusual in that prosecutors effectively held the wives of some defendants hostage in order to coerce those defendants to plead guilty. Defendant Bruce James Long and his wife Somying Anderson have both declined plea deals.

Bifield was blatantly coerced into taking his deal. He has spoken often and openly about his love for his wife and his distress over her incarceration and their separation. One passage of the written agreement says: “…the United States further agrees to permit Co-Defendant Lisa Ellen Bifield to plead guilty to Count 47, charging possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime or a crime of violence, a violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 924(c).”

Bifield agreed to an analogous deal in 1997 when he took full responsibility for a tax scheme that mostly benefitted his then wife. The wife card was part of the government’s strategy to get Bifield when the investigation of the Rock Hill, South Carolina Hells Angels and Red Devils began more than two years ago.

Taking Everything

The government intends to take any assets the couple may have acquired since Dan Bifield was released from prison in 2008. The plea agreement states:

“The Defendant agrees to provide detailed financial information to the United States Probation Office prior to sentencing. The Defendant further agrees to enter into the Bureau of Prisons Inmate Financial Responsibility Program if sentenced to a term of incarceration with an unsatisfied monetary penalty. The Defendant further understands that any monetary penalty imposed is not dischargeable in bankruptcy.”

“The Defendant agrees to voluntarily surrender to, and not to contest the forfeiture by, the United States of America of any and all assets and property, or portions thereof, owned or purchased by the Defendant which are subject to the forfeiture pursuant to any provision of law and which are in the possession or control of the Defendant or Defendant’s nominees. The Defendant further agrees to prevent the disbursement, relocation or encumbrance of any such assets and agrees to fully assist the government in the recovery and return to the United States of any assets, or portions thereof, as described above, wherever located. The Defendant further agrees -to make a full and complete disclosure of all assets over which Defendant exercises control and those which are held or controlled by nominees. The Defendant further agrees to submit to a polygraph examination on the issue of assets if it is deemed necessary by the United States. The Defendant agrees to forfeit all interests in the properties as described above and to take whatever steps are necessary to pass clear title to the United States. These steps include, but are not limited to, the surrender of title and the signing of any other documents necessary to effectuate such transfers. The Defendant agrees not to object to any civil forfeiture proceedings brought against these properties pursuant to any provision of law and the Defendant further understands that any such civil proceedings may properly be brought at any time….”

Abandon All Hope

The written plea agreement also states:

“The Defendant is aware that 18 U.S.C. § 3742 and 28 U.S.C. § 2255 afford every defendant certain rights to contest a conviction and or sentence. Acknowledging those rights, the Defendant, in exchange for the concessions made by the Government in this Plea Agreement, (by which the government means the concession not to lock up his wife and throw away the key) waives the right to contest either the conviction or the sentence in any direct appeal or other post-conviction action, including any proceedings under 28 U.S.C. §’2255. This waiver does not apply to claims of ineffective assistance of counselor prosecutorial misconduct. This Agreement does not affect the rights or obligations of the Government as set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 3742(b). Nor does it limit the Government in its comments in or responses to any post-sentencing matters.”

“The Defendant waives all rights, whether asserted directly or by a representative, to request or receive from any department or agency of the United States any records pertaining to the investigation or prosecution of this case, including without limitation any records that may be sought under the Freedom of Information Act….”


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50 Responses to “Dan Bifield Eats The Twenty”

  1. Daniel Bifield 2nd Says:

    I love you dad. Stay strong

  2. Matt Says:

    and statement.of factsis just a summary.of.the case one pc.ofpaper that is in the back.of ur PSI. not a statement like what u.dont give tothe law. just to clarify

  3. Matt Says:

    danny was the first celly i ever had when.i was 19 and got to lewisburg. great dude. really

  4. Friend of Dan Says:

    I have scheduled a visit with Dan for Thursday the 10 of Jan so I will speak to him about character lettrs and see what he wants to do and will let everyone know then. Please keep writing to him as he needs all the support we can give him now. His compassion and concern for others should be a lesson for all and we should show him what he has taught us. About all we can do for him now is to show our love and support by writing to him and helping out with his canteen. From me, thank you all for your support to my friend, Diamond Dan.

  5. Jim666 Says:

    Izzy And Tramp, thank you for posting the judges name and address along w/ the copy of the letter you wrote, it shows how to address the judge and about Dan,s character and his meaning to others, I will be writing to him as well,

    L&R Jim

  6. zeb666 Says:

    I respect and admire your site a great deal but I do disagree with you. Most refuse to plead to anything RICO. Many have plead to alot of things but refuse to until the RICO implications are removed. I know that from my own personal experience and those of friends and brothers. I’m not casting judgement, simply witholding it until I know all the details. Before you ask, yes, I know Dan and all of the other defendants. I pray everyday for the federal government and all of their bullshit to be shown for exactly what it is. FREE ROCK HILL.

  7. Rebel Says:

    Dear RLG,

    The clause about Bifield not looking ofr his information using FOIA is kind of an indicator of the contrived nature of the prosecution’s case.


  8. Rebel Says:

    Dear zeb666,

    The plea agreement states:

    IN CONSIDERATION of the mutual promises made herein, the parties hereto agree as follows:

    1. The Defendant agrees to plead guilty to Count 20f the Superseding Indictment, charging “RICO Conspiracy,” a violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 1962(d).In order to sustain its burden of proof as to this offense, the Government is required to prove the following:
    • A conspiracy or agreement existed to participate in the affairs of an enterprise that affected interstate or foreign commerce through a pattern of racketeering activitYi
    • The Defendant deliberately joined the conspiracy or agreement with knowledge of its purpose; and The Defendant knew that someone, not necessarily the defendant, would commit two racketeering acts.

    The penalty for Count 2 is: 18 USC 1962 ~ a maximum term of imprisonment of twenty (20) years, a fine of $250,000, a term of supervised release of three (3) years, plus a special assessment of $100.00.

    Bifield pled guilty to RICO but he did not provide a “statement of facts” that would describe what the RICO predicates were. He did not put anybody else in. He just pled guilty to the charges against him.

    I virtually all these racketeering cases, every defendant who pleads to pleads to RICO. The devil is in the details. I personally think it is a plea that gives the government nothing except the rest of Dan Bifield’s life. I think the guy fell on his sword. I think Bifield meant it when he told me his wife was first, his club was second and then he, Dan Bifield, was last.

    What else could he plead to? Counterfeiting?


  9. lynn Says:

    I’m sending a copy to Dan & Dans attorney..the Co’s see everything that goes to him now..a good character letter can’t hurt anything..Mines already written/done…i myself don’t trust anyone anymore and have heard thru close family member..and again I said “heard” that Dans attorneys seem to have lost their fight in them..So I’m making sure Dan gets a copy too. To muuch chain of command trying to be implimented here..I mean really???…what more can he lose..Hes lost just about everything as it is..Yall don’t think they’ve already read or seen the thousands of letters he’s already been sent if they are looking/reading them..Trust me..i am fully aware of what the CO’s do with the mail..My sister is Dans wife..

  10. zeb666 Says:

    I hope everything that I have read from other websites and the newspapers are incorrect because they all say he pled guilty to RICO.
    Thats a definite NO NO. That throws all his co-defendants under the bus. Thats hardly a hero.

  11. Junior Says:



  12. Izzy Wldheart Says:

    This whole case has been a travesty and a tragedy from day one.
    I completely agree with writing letters, but, I have to say that I personally have written to Judge Currie pleading for leniency, not to Dan’s lawyers as I don’t believe Dan would be in the position he is now if they gave one iota of a fuck.
    Court appointed lawyers generally aren’t interested in the person or the case,innocent or guilty, makes no difference. They persuade clients to take a deal thereby saving them from doing the paperwork and they just collect the fee and move on. We have seen this all too often in so many Brother’s cases.
    Anyone wanting to write to Judge Currie the address is:

    The Hon. Judge Currie
    US District Judge
    901 Richland Street
    Columbia, SC 29201

    Respects Rebel for putting it out there, and all that you do.
    Here is a copy of the letter I have sent to Currie.

    Your Honour.
    I am writing on behalf of Daniel Bifield who I have known for over 20 years.
    I am fully aware that he has signed a plea agreement and would like to appeal to you for leniency when deciding upon his sentence on March 27th 2013.

    Daniel has been a good friend to me and my husband over the years we have known him and is loved by many.
    Dan pleaded guilty to a victimless crime purely to ensure his wife Lisa will be in jail for as short a time as possible, since she has no prior convictions and two children at home waiting for her release.

    Daniel is known for his generosity of spirit ,kindness and support of his friends, family, neighbours and community in times of need,. Surely this should count for something? He is not a name and number to us but a man we value as a friend.

    Daniel is now 62 years of age. He is not a career criminal,.
    I therefore appeal to you to show Daniel Bifield some leniency.
    I believe it is written that:
    “The Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, made applicable to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment, provides that “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted”.

    I thank you for your time and compassion.


  13. Sieg Says:

    In ANY institution, all mail is opened and read, and if it is of ANY interest to anyone, as the Bifield’s certainly is, copies are made of the envelope and the contents and kept for future use. Anything written or sent in to any institution can and will be used as evidence against the sender and receiver if the Beast decides it is relavant to a prostitution, er, prosecution.

    The Bifield’s will certainly have a say in which letters, if any, are used as a paart of their sentencing hearing. With that in mind, remember the old adage that a lawyer who defends himself has a fool for a client.

    FTF / FTP

  14. Jim666 Says:

    Rollinnorth is correct the co,s do open and inspect all letters cards ect, they probably read them too.

  15. rollinnorth Says:

    I expect any letters sent to Dan Bifield, or anyone in jail, will be opened and read by COs and others who have no business seeing them. Send them to his lawyers, who will be able to make sure the letters are sent to the sentencing Judge.

  16. lynn Says:

    Why not just send them straight to Dan and let him decide.

  17. rollinnorth Says:

    Feds have been including that in the pages and pages of “boilerplate” clauses in plea agreements for awhile. Often, there is no deal to a plea, so an “agreement”, with all that “standard” language, is not signed; it’s called a “naked” plea. The effort goes into getting a decent PreSentence Report (PSR) by US Probation and giving the Judge reasons to depart from sentencing guidelines.


  18. RLG Says:


    Never seen this clause before:

    “including without limitation any records that may be sought under the Freedom of Information Act”

  19. Glenn S. Says:

    Sieg said: “…the often-conflicting postings concerning the Bifields…”

    That, IMHO, has been counterproductive and frustrating to those who wish the Bifields the best, and also wish the best to the rest of those caught up in this shit. Let’s hope that doesn’t start again.

    Just a thought: best to keep any lack of unity offline.

  20. Jim666 Says:

    Good call Sieg.

    Respects Jim666

    Btw E-mail returned Thnx

  21. Sieg Says:

    Typically the attorney’s will want to review the letters and submit them all at once. They will usually make-up a guideline sheet that outlines what they would like to see in the letter, and gives the judge’s name and address, as well as the lawyers mailing address.

    Not my place to say, but I would suggest that given the often-conflicting postings concerning the Bifields, that this matter be coordinated through their attorny’s office and not on these pages.

  22. Not Surpised Says:

    Thanks for all the suggestions on letters. Monday the attorneys will be asked the best way to handle this and Dan will be asked to sign off on it.

    My understanding is there are three ways

    Letter to the actual presiding judge acting on your own

    Having the court agree to accept the letters in open court and put it on the record the letters will be considered during the sentencing phase.

    I would say something will be posted here on this page after the conversation with the attorneys

    I think there is a set protocol to write to the presiding and that will be relayed here as well

  23. irene Says:

    I’m so pissed the fuck off with this shit its mot fair… These are innocent ppl and they have families to take care of….this is some bullshit

  24. Sieg Says:

    Rebel, if you could print the name and mailing addy of the Bifield’s attorney, all letters could be sent directly to him.

    With respect, no “permissions” are necessary here, the Bifield’s are fighting for their lives, and it should be up to the attorney to decide whci, or if any, letters are presented to the judge on their behalf. I’m sure they would agree, so leave us not shilly-shally about and waste time with four different “friends and relatives” going after “permission” to solicit letters.

    Send ’em in, and if they don’t get used, well, yer out .32 for a stamp.

    FTF / FTP

  25. lynn Says:

    I agree with all of you on the letters…I could almost bet our own mother ( lisa & mines) would even write one..She never had an unkind word to say about him..Someone get the ball rolling and try and help this man if possible..Speak with Dan and if hes ok with it then go for it!! You never know..it could make a huge difference in his life/sentencing.. The simple fact that he plead to help lisa shows that he is a caring man.

  26. Jim666 Says:


    yrs ago on my 2nd felony sentence the judge had recieved quite a few letters from differnt people in the community on my behalf as to my character work ethic being a new father things to that account and the judge told me in court before my sentencing the letters played a great part on his decision.

    out of a five yr sentence for possesion of firearm by a felon I recieved 6 months in jail and five yrs probation,since i had already been in jail 7 months due to no bond i got time serven and paper for five yrs, so yea sometimes letters do help a great deal,

    Altho this really needs to be cleared w/ Dan before sending any letters, and there should be guidlines in place as to how to address the judge and the correct wording and contents, Hopfully if Dan doesnt object they will help him a great deal,

  27. Glenn S. Says:

    Sieg is absolutely correct when he says to send all letters to Dan’s attorney. The attorney will know what points are more likely to resonate with this particular judge, who can best make these points, and which well-meaning letters might be counter-productive. A cover letter addressed to the lawyer might be a good idea also, especially if the letter writer might not be a model citizen by the judge’s definition. Here in South Carolina, character references from the mainstream clergy can be very helpful.

    The local newspaper often reports rulings from this particular judge. Sadly, I cannot think of one that was favorable to the defendant.

  28. santashell Says:

    I loved what friend of Dan had to say and the song One Tin Solgier really does fit the situation and really does discribe what type of man Diamond Dan really is. It too brought tears to my eyes. Although I didnt know the man that well I do know how much his wife and brothers mean to the man and to me and to this community of bikers he is our ONE TIN SOLGIER and he will be greatly missed. WE LOVE YOU DIAMOND DAN!!
    Much LH&R

  29. Sieg Says:

    The best bet is to write letters of attestaion and SEND THEM TO DAN’S ATTORNEY! They will, undoubtedly, be coordinating letter’s, etc., and it’s better to have them do it than to send them in piecemeal. Address your letters to the judge that will sentence them, maybe Rebel could print the appropriate info.

    The Bifield’s lawyer can get you a “guidelines sheet” that will lay-out ‘zactly how they would like the letter to read, but in general, remember that they have had to “accept responsibiity”, and “admit guilt”, so no references to how they got fucked hard by the Beast, and simply state how you know them, what you know about them, and why you believe they are good, upstanding Citizens of the USA.

    Remember, CLEAR IT WITH THEIR LAWYER. Trust me on this one. LEtters are good, but they meed to go to the lawyer BEFORE sentencing. Also, bear in mind that no matter how slim the hope, the numbers the Beast Prostitutors throw around are just that, numbers. The judge DOES NOT have to follow sentencing guidelines when it comes to the actual sentencing, and the lawyers will be lookingto give the judge “reasons to depart from sentencing guidelines”. Help then give them!

    FTF / FTP

  30. Caretaker Says:

    I am so pissed off at this I am beyond words… ANYTHING I can do for dan and lisa I will,no question.

    This is BULLSHIT,

  31. lynn Says:

    All we can do is try. Character letters, pleading for Lisa, his age, anything couldn’t hurt. Our mother says she can’t even say any unkind word about him. This is just plain sad.

  32. Jim666 Says:

    Character letters might not be a bad idea, letters to the judge just might effect the amount of time Dan gets.It,s been done before and in some cases helped, of course it would be Dan,s decision whether or not he would like the letters be written.

    Of course they may not help as in Dave Burgess case,but worth a try,only cost a few min.s time and a 35 cent stamp

    Best wishes for the lightest sentence possible, our “just us” system is beyond fucked
    Respects Jim666

  33. lynn Says:

    I wouldn’t dare tell you off..thank you for keeping everyone updated…Its alot to keep up with so I couldn’t ever expect anyone to get it all right..Sorry if i ever come across bitter..It just hurts so bad to see them being treated this way…I just don’t understand how people can treat people the way they’ve been treated..I talk to lisa everyday and theres just nothing good about this..shes gonna do her time and come home to us (her family) in a few years..We love and miss them both..Maybe someone can help Dan get his sentence lessened…since his carries a max of 20 yr, maybe the judge could be somewhat leanant..you never know..miracles happen everyday.. If I were Dan I would def. be asking my attorneys to do whatever they can on his behalf before sentencing in March..It can’t hurt..Thanks again Rebel..your articles help keep people updated..

  34. lynn Says:

    Thanks Rebel..Lisa will be sentenced in March to 5 years..after good time and time served she will serve 39 months in federal prison…Dan will be sentenced then too..His charge carries up to 20 years…maybe theres a chance he could get less..who knows…lisas carries 5-life, however its been agreed that she gets 60 months (5yrs) since Dan and her took a plea in order to help lisa out…If I were Dan I would be seeing what if anything his lawyers could do to get him the least amount of time out of the 20 yrs..Dan is a nice man..i hate to see them suffer this way..I’d right a character letter if it would help..I’m sure thousands of people would..theres still hope..as I said..sentencing has not yet begun.

  35. Rebel Says:

    Dear Lynn,

    I understand that this case is very personal, painful and important to you. And, I also understand my place. Everybody knows I am just some guy with a motorcycle and a keyboard. Sometimes I get it right. I believe Lisa Bifield will be sentenced in March to three. Email me anytime. Feel free to tell me off anytime.


  36. Phuquehed Says:

    Our justice system is a lost cause. The greed, the contempt for law and decency, the pathetic need to climb some moronic ladder to make a name for oneself (which doesn’t go into any history books and if it does it won’t last long), the scumbags and dredges of the earth running the zoo known as our government.

    When a judge can’t do the right thing, persecutors do anything they have to just to try and get someone in jail, and pigs defending those things that are so outrageously against everything this country is supposed to be all about…just means it’s all a lost cause. Justice is a farce, pigs are a farce, our government is a farce. The most pitiful part of it all is that those who do these things to the innocent have no conscience or shame and will go home and laugh and play with their shitass offspring who are wasting my good air and teach them to be asshole scum just like their parents.

    You’re the honorable person here, Dan, and can hold your head up and stand tall because you’re better than the asshats who have done this to you and yours. It’s no consolation, but it sure as hell is the truth and you need to know a lot of people think the same way.

  37. IO Says:

    Diamond Dan is an honorable man who holds on to what makes him such a man.

    I have seen the feds in action and I have seen the pleasure that comes from spinning a story in order to convict their intended targets. It’s tragedy that honorable people who live by principals get 20 to life and cooperators with a grocery list of deeds walk.

    I know it ain’t anything close to freedom but at least Diamond Dan will be able to sleep at night and live with himself knowing that he ain’t no snitch or agent of corruption.

    Write letters to prisoners everyone.



  38. WARTHOG Says:

    I wish I could express how I feel about this in an intelligent manner, but all I can come up with (respectfully) is what jim666 said above.




  39. Jim666 Says:

    this is really fucked up

  40. lynn Says:

    No ones been sentenced yet..Lisas charge carries 5 to life..Dans carries a max of 20..Sentencing will be on March 27.

  41. lynn Says:

    Neithers been sentenced yet…Lisa did not get 3 yrs..Her charge carries 5 yrs to life..Dans carries up to 20 yrs..Sentencing will be on march 27th..the judge determines their sentence..the prosecution and defense attorneys can only make recommendations to the judge…We are told Lisa will get 5 yrs and after time served and good time she will do a little over 3…and this is if the judge goes along with the recommendations from the prosecution and defense attorney..this was the reason they took the plea..but i will believe it when i see it on the 27th of March..hopefully they will keep their promises and lisa will get the 5..and you never know ..Dan could get less than 20…his charge carries a max of 20..Dan is 62 yrs old.

  42. Friend of Dan Says:


    This brings tears to my eyes hearing this song thinking about this movie and how it relates to Diamond. I have a heavy heart today and I just ask that people just respect the decision that Dan made. He made it and did it with Honor and his head held high. He wanted people to know that He did NOT cooperate with the Pricks. Just because He made a plea deal does not mean that it is cooperating. I don’t want to really start talking too much on here because my feelings are probably not letting me think straight. I’m not posting on here for anyone’s benefit but mine as a release of emotions. I have been to EVERY hearing except the Bond hearing and have been there for Dan to help in every way I could whether it was making a phone call to someone for Him or just to be the one He could vent to and I am truely Honored and Proud to call Diamond my friend and for Him to call me His friend. I am just so hurt to know that I will never be able to ride with Him, or to sit and talk to Him one on one and the other things we did together. He is TRUELY a remarkable person full of Integrity, Honor, and Respect. I love you like a true Brother, Diamond!

  43. Poppa Danny Says:

    Anyone who knows Dan knows this deal is of no surprise. His love for Lisa, he would agree to anything to help her out. Dan is a great man full of truth, honor, and integrity and is proof of how easy it is to get screwed over by the same government that is supposed to protect us. Hah, right. All I can say is, Brother Dan we love you and honor the privalage to know you. :) much LH&R.

  44. Wretched Man Says:

    In what surely appears to be a travesty in the “just us” system, a man’s wife is “hooked” & then used to bait a trap.
    For evil to triumph, all that good men need to do is: NOTHING!

    I lost my “Ol Lady” a few years back in a car wreck, & I certainly know the value of a good woman, & would have done whatever it took to free her if I were in that position.
    Still leaves a bad taste tho’


  45. trouble Says:

    The practice of obtaining something, through force or threats.
    blackmail – exaction

    extortion – definition of extortion by /extortionIllegal use of one’s official position or powers to obtain property, funds, or patronage. 3. An excessive or exorbitant charge. 4. Something extorted. this is just what the goverment is doing to diamond ..

  46. WWB Says:

    Is this not a blatant pervesion of justice?

  47. Chip Says:

    This was not justice in any way shape or form. We are taught to believe that we are all entitled to “our day in court”, that as evidenced by this farce is a lie from the pit if Hell. This has been a slow motion train wreck from start to finish. All that is left now is the official body count on 27 March 2013 at 2:00 pm. There are days in which events forever mold one’s outlook on life and the nature of it. This was one of those days for me. Today was the culmination of a vendetta in which what remains of our sad government got it’s “pound of flesh “. May they choke on it. A good man has been taken away by an unfeeling beast and we are all made less for it. This hollow victory by evil men and their kind, if there be any justice, shall in due course poison us all should it continue to fester or be visited in kind if there be any God.

  48. Not Surprised Says:

    I don’t think this comes as a big shock to anyone. I think the epitome of evil is to use those things you love against you.

    I doubt his wife is guilty really of anything more than marrying Dan Bifield, and I am not so sure her three years isn’t “punishment” for not testifying against him.

    I am certain Dan asked for a lot longer sentence in exchange for his wife’s freedom.

    Only Dan knows if he is guilty. Hopefully, one or both of them will be granted a little mercy and be able to remain close to the area and their young daughter. I’m not holding my breath though.

    Nothing can be more hateful and cruel than a vindictive federal government……………

  49. rollinnorth Says:

    Such a shame. This government and its just-us system are out of control and a total disgrace.
    Dan Bifield is truly a standup guy.
    Thank you, Rebel, for keeping up with this sad saga.


  50. Alex T Says:

    That scares the hell out of me when you realize the power that the Federal Government has. I enjoy reading this site even though I am not in a MC or even know how to ride.
    What has happened to our Constitutional rights?

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